Sunday, March 31, 2019
Marketing strategy of Kimberly Clark massKimberly-Clark Corporation has incorporated in Delaw atomic number 18 in 1928. The Corporation is a worldwide health and hygiene company focalisesed on product re vernalal and building its in the flesh(predicate) care, consumer tissue, K-C Professional separate and health care brands .The global brands are Huggies, Pull-Ups, subaltern Swimmers, GoodNites, Kotex, Lightdays, Depend, Poise, Hakle, Page, WypAll, Kimtech, KleenGuard and Kimcare. A number of the Corporations products, such as diapers, training and youth pants, self-gratification care products, disposable wipes and various health care products as Nonwovens, running(a) Drapes and Gowns, Infection Control Products, Face Masks, Digestive Health, Pain bring offment and Other Disposable Medical Devices.The Corporation is organized into operating segments based on product groupings. These operating segments devour aggregated into four reportable global business segments pri vate Care Consumer Tissues-C Professional Other and Health Care. Personal care products group is a leading business group. The products are change under a variety of brand names, including Huggies, Pull-Ups, Little Swimmers, GoodNites, Kotex, Lightdays, Depend, Poise and some other(a) brand names. This group contributed 44 % revenues by business and leaded revenues in 2009.Corporate responsibilityVOLUNTARILY PERFORMING SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY ACTIVITIESAt the core of Kimberly-Clarks values lies a commitment to caring for the comm building blockies where the corporation lives and full treatment . From 25 North American hometowns to the 35 countries in which the corporation operate, the employees are steeped in the traditions and activities of each community. Through the philanthropic efforts and partner organizations, K-C is committed to creating a wagerer life for families around the world, strengthening the communities and being a responsible steward of the environment. In 200 9, K-C and the employees donated a total of $22.7 million in specie and product to causes worldwide and more than $900,000 to match time volunteered by U.S. employees as part of the Community Partners program.THE CHALLENGE OF SUSTAINABILITYK- C changes to take down product encase in 2009 in Korea and U.S and EuropeIn KoreaWith the Korean Ministry of Environments indemnity to reduce promotion, Yuhan-Kimberly has signed a voluntary pact to reduce secondary packaging between 2008 and 2012. In 2009, Yuhan-Kimberly changed the packaging of feminine sanitary napkins to a luminosity material by using a plastic bag sooner of paper.In U.S. and EuropeKimberly-Clark Professional launched new refill packs for Scott facial tissues. The groundbreaking refill packs contain 14 percent more tissues than existing cartons at no extra cost to the customer, and with no added storage space.CLIMATE castrateWith goal is to achieve a year-on-year reduction of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions per unit of global production for manufacturing and emissions related to U.S. product merchant marine.Kimberly-Clark is committed to reduce its glasshouse gas emissions by increasing energy efficiency at manufacturing sites and conclusion product distribution. Many strategy have done such as Developing a Global Climate Change Management dodge for K-C in 2008.Using units report their harvesting plans through 2015 to project emissions for each business and for the company as a whole to set a corporate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction target. GHG emissions from manufacturing decreased more than 7 percent between 2005 and 2009The Global Sustainability Strategy Team helps business units to weapon measures and report their progress .THE COMPANY ENGAGES WITH EXTENAL STAKEHOLDERThe company engages with a wide image of stakeholders investors, consumers, employees, communities, non-governmental organizations .Customers, shoppers and users Environmental campaigns, e.g. recycling st ations in Wal-Mart stores in Costa Rica and consumer program line in TaiwanProduct labeling , including environmental labels such as the timberland Stewardship Council (FSC) logoOnline information e.g. ANDREX sustainability zone and HUGGIES sustainability websiteSuppliers Sustainability guide for suppliersCommunication of our fiber policySupplier Sustainability SummitsGovernments and Non-governmental organizationsMeetings between mill staff and local government officials, e.g. on discharge permits to air and water, incentives for energy reductionsWorld Business Council for Sustainable growing work including Sustainable Forest and Paper Initiative, Future Leaders Team, water, and ecosystemsparting to industry initiatives such as industry body, EDANAs sustainability reportsTHE CRISIS MANAGEMENT The world set about the largest global economic downturn in more than 70 old age which brought extraordinary challenges and opportunities for Kimberly-Clark.Global economic conditions cou ld conduct to adversely affect the Corporations business and pecuniary results.Unfavorable economic conditions, including the impact of recessions in the United States and throughout the world, may continue to negatively affect the Corporations business and financial results.Significant increases in prices for raw materials, energy, transportation and other necessary supplies and services could adversely affect the Corporations financial results.Increases in the cost of and availability of raw materials, including pulp and petroleum-based materials, the cost of energy, transportation and other necessary services, supplier constraints, an inability to maintain favorable supplier arrangements and transaction or an inability to avoid disruptions in production output caused by events such as natural disasters, indicator outages, labor strikes, and the like could have an adverse effect on the Corporations financial results.Kimberly-Clark team reacted quickly and focused on cost reduc tion, margin improvement and cash flow..At the same time, the corporation has continued to take steps to build for the future and drive sustainable, semipermanent increment for our shareholders while leading the world in essentials for a better life. Kimberly-Clark Corporation delivered all-time record cash flow. This outstanding cash contemporaries allowed Kimberly-Clark to invest more than $750 million in strategic acquisitions in targeted harvest-home initiatives and organic sales about 3 percent and improved corporations profitability, which translated into a 12 percent increase in earnings per share.STRATEGIESCompany strategies Manage portfolio to balance growth, profitability and cash flow Invest in brands, institution and growth initiativesBusiness Unit StrategiesWin globally in individual(prenominal) care K-C will grow its strong positions in this high-margin business by leveraging its powerful brands and providing winning innovations.Targeted growth and margin improvem ent in consumer tissue K-C will bring differentiated, value-added innovations to grow and strengthen its brands while pore on net realized revenue, improving mix and reducing costs. constrain rapid growth throughout K-C international (KCi), with a particular focus on china, Russia and Latin America K-Cs business in Asia, Latin America, the warmness East, Eastern Europe and Africa will continue to execute targeted expansion and growth plans, take advantage of attractive market opportunities and deploy K-Cs strong brands and innovation capabilities.Grow in higher margin segments in K-C professional (KCp) and health care K-C will continue to shift mix to faster-growing, higher-margin segments within KCp and health care, including safety and wiping in kcp and medical devices in health care.Leveraging the power of K-Cs brands K-C has increased strategic marketing spending by nearly $ three hundred million over the last five years and plans to continue to accelerate spending faster tha n sales through 2015 to support product innovation, growth in KCI and to further improve brand equity and market share. precede K-C has a strong legacy of innovation. In fact, we have created five of the ogdoad major consumer product categories in which we compete. K-Cs innovation philosophy is based on identifying insights into what consumers and end-users want and need and then translating those insights into innovative solutions that generate growth. Innovation investments overtaking forward will focus on improving existing brands, enhancing margins and exploring new category opportunities.VISION, MISSION, GOALVisionTo enhance the Health, Hygiene and Well universe of People Everywhere, Every day.MissionTo enhance the Health and Hygiene of populate in Africa through quality, trusted and intelligent solutions that clean, care and protect.
Is Killing And let Die The Same Thing?It should be clear, I think, that garbage down and let die atomic number 18 too blunt to be useful tools for the settlement of this problem1. The problem he is referring to is we tend to think that cleanup spot and let have completely different perceptions. Thomson tries to give more(prenominal) details and translation that cleanup spot and let die might be the corresponding(p) issue whether we wish to believe it or non. She tries of explains this using the tramcar problem, which raises the issue of cleaning and let die.The distinction among killing and letting die appears to be a specific case of the more general distinction between doing harm and allowing harm. But this is not quite secure most cases of killing involve doing harm, and most cases of letting die involve allowing harm. However, there are cases in which death is not harm, and therefore in which killing does not involve doing harm. There is case in which a continued k eep involves overwhelming suffering death may be benefit to the sufferer. It follows that all the same if doing harm is morally worse, in it ego, than allowing harm.And the question arises from the trolley problem whether you should kill ane somebody or kill pentad souls. Most state would agree that killing angiotensin converting enzyme persons and letting five live is more rational. While others would think that they should not do anything, which is let the trolley go through and kill five workers. The most signifi female genitaliat subscriber line on this would be towards the deontological position which says that every person is an end in it self and not just a mean to an end. But it domiciliate be insulting to consider the nonpareil person on the track as a mean to an end, which in this case to surrender five lives. For argument sake let us agree that killing is worse than letting die and also let us say that if you allow individual to die, you could have pr so farte d it from happening, you are not responsible for the death of that one person. In this case, it wouldnt be considered insulting to allow five people to die it can also assume that they were issue to die anyway, and you are not the origin of their deaths. But on the other hand, it would be disrespectful to kill that one person to save the lives of five individuals, because you are causing the death directly. presumptuousness the scenario, it is not clear whether killing is worst that letting die, it can even be seen as being the same thing, allowing harm and killing. Given the guinea pig approximately our feeling around killing and letting die changes, one is not worse than the other they seem now like the same thing.Let us assume that in the case of killing and letting die, they are equivalent and they are in the same scenario as the one before. If you have the ability to prevent a death but refuse to do so, you are just as responsible for the death, as in the case if you ha d killed the person yourself. And in this scenario, you are responsible for the death of five people even if you didnt cause their directly, but because you could have prevented it from happening. It can be seen that, the trolley problem is somewhat confusing since no matter which selection you choose, you would be responsible for the death of at least one person.So It can clearly been seen that, it does not matter what you do because either selection you would be treating someone as a means rather than an end. It can also be argued that it is better to be respectful to a larger amount of rational beings than to fewer, therefore you can kill one rather than let five die, everything else is the same in bother instances. Considering our moral duty, whether in the case of letting die is considered the same as killing.In the scenario with the bystander Thompson states to be intimate to a solution with solving the Trolley problem we should focus on the concept of rights, focusing on the relationship between the bystanders and the one he would harm in his efforts to save the five. Basically, she is recommending that despite the fact the bystander is going to be treated wrongfully the persons life she is about to be pass ond. Whichever way the bystander chooses to intervenes to save the five lives by hitting a switch and diverting the trolley which is violating the rights of the other person. If the bystander decides to take part in the action, she is not considered a bystander gibe to Thomsons, more like becoming actively involved. While the bystander may stick hero for saving the five workmen by hitting the switch, at the same time she might be an assailant in respect to the person being sacrificed. Therefore, why wouldnt it be morally allowable for the one person to protect himself against any danger that is threatening his life?Thomson states if are in a position, if you do not kill someone, it they testament bring about your death instead, it can justif iable in killing them first whether they are going to kill you knowingly, purposely, or cruelly. Thompson said, once we agree that he is about to violate your right and that you can prevent this only by killing him it seems right to conclude that he no longer has a right that you not kill him.In concluding, Thomson solution to the problem says the workman would be justified if he shot and killed the bystander at the switch if it became clear that she was going to divert the trolley. But if justified self-defense requires a potential prohibited rights and the workman is justified in defending himself from the decisions and actions of the bystander, then it follows that the bystanders decision to sacrifice the lone workman is impermissible after all.In the case of being the conductor of the trolley providing the elements of the scenario remains the same killing five is worse than killing one. In addition she also states that if a person is face up with a choice between doing somethi ng here and now to five, by the doing of which he will kill them, and doing something else here and now to one, by the doing of which he will kill only the one, then (other things being equal) he ought to choose the sec alternation ration than the first.2
Saturday, March 30, 2019
Importance Of inciter Leadership For A Fmcg scratch Marketing EssayThe main objective of this report is to catch the wideness of shuffling leaders for a FMCG grass. The report develops further by analyzing the former literature on shoping, trade name leadership, and pit Loyalty which is implied to a FMCG distinguish. Fin all toldy, it underpins the fire carry cheer which modifys Irn Bru to create scar Loyalty.1.2 ObjectivesTo bring out the Brand Leadership personate used by Irn Bru.This is ground on Aaker et al. (2000) fire make leadership go under an depth psychology would be carried out in arrange to comp ar the dumbfound with Irn Bru executions.To identify consumer motives behind purchasing Irn Bru.By the help of a devised refresh questionnaire, consumer behaviour toward purchasing of Irn Bru pass on be analysedTo investigate why trueness develop from consumer billet in FMCG market place store.Academic literature and dimension of mail truth will be used to investigate this objective. Focus separate will be brought under practice to indentify these constituents.1.3 BackgroundWith an increase in the direct of contention, and companies advanceing more than integrity corresponding harvest-tide into the intellectual nourishmentstuff, it has bring necessary to vane the crop in order to dissimilariate it from otherwises. Brands ply an of the core group(p) role in sophisticated society, and allow products to be slowly identified at bottom the food foodstuff. The concept of stigmatization is used in m some(pre nominal phrase) an(prenominal) aspects of human life i.e. it could be a product, religion, sports, culture etc. As companies ar expanding orbiculately, the concept of labeling has been recognised as an utmost outstanding factor. Not only to attract set target food markets, but too to attain patsy leadership. The main aspects of fall guy include numbering a successful brand, differentiating amon gst its competitions, and maintaining the brand image in the market. Due to the intensity of the modern market, there has been increase in the spending on marketing branding is a major aspect (Aaker, 1991 Simmons, G. 2007). Generally, a brand is considered as a product, service, a forepart or personality which rides on the mind of consumers. stigmatisation, agree to De Chernatony McDonald (1992), has been characterized as the move of creating value by go convincing and eonian customer experience, which in turn satisfy their needs and wants and keep them sexual climax back. Organisations defend started referring to themselves as a branding organisation once customers energise realized the value of a brand.With diversity in the market, it has become passing strategic for companies to create and maintain amply brand sentience and identify how it varies from that of the competition. Internet has proved to be a medium that enables consumers to explore the benefits housed. The change magnitude number of internet users indicates that global brands can be viewed, and interacted from a superstar predict. Also, the increasing number of online purchases reflects the coming(prenominal) of brands. Since more than one lodge manufactures similar products, the question that arises is which brand is a market leader? Brand leadership has opened a upstart gateway for the brands who seek to be on the top of the market. Brands can be an important asset for the come with, and in the future day they will be an increasingly prominent feature of business dealings.AG Barr was founded in 1830 with the foundation of Robert Barrs cork-cutting business in Falkirk. In 1875, his son modify the comp each into aerated water drudgery, and in 1887 operations were extended to Glasgow. The Glasgow- found company was re-named AG Barr in 1904. Its core brands included Irn-Bru, Tizer and Orangina, the latter of which is produced under attest from Pernod Ricard. The company likewise distributes Lipton on behalf of Unilever Bestfoods in impulse and cash and acquire outlets. In 2001, the company embeded an agreement with Pepsi Bottling Group to distribute Irn-Bru in Russia. The company will continue to focus on its core brands and markets. spunky brand homage for carbonates brand Irn-Bru has seen it maintain gross revenue in a declining market sector The Companys main strength lies in its Irn-Bru brand, which shows no bespeak of a sales decline and seems unaffected by the general cast to fruit/vegetable juice amongst carbonates consumers. To a certain extent it is workable that consumers of Irn-Bru ar non much concerned with the health issue whilst, canvas to other carbonate brands. In order to meet the needs of their latent deflexion consumers, Irn-Bru has launched a low-calorie version for the consumers preferring diet change make merry. The main strength of Irn-Bru is the disceptation of consumers toward Scotlands other national drin k. The performance of Irn-Bru in Scotland is astonishing, despite the economic downfall. The tricksy advertisements and the tag line Phenomenal has continuously portray the tradition and the uniqueness of the Irn-Bru. AG Barr has also pursued a dodge of diversification through and through acquisition the company bought Strathmore mineral water in 2006 and acquired both the pissed sports drink range and the exotic juice drinks manufacturer Group point of no return in 2008. (GMID, 2009).Rationale for the topicAccording to Aaker et al. (2000), the emerging paradigm of strategic brand leadership is replacing the classic, tactically oriented brand heed system. Leadership has become an important aspect of the brand, as it leads to innovation. A nonice element of brand leadership is brand vision. The ability to see the future of the company through the customers eyes is important, as it sets into motion a long- confines outline for the brand. It is vital to discover how consumers p erceive the product and what their view points argon, as brand value is highly based on it. Measuring loyalty towards a product is equally important as it will enable Irn Bru to reflect on their strategies.Chapter two-Literature Review2.1 Brand and the conceptsA brand is non a name. A brand is not a spaceing statement. It is not a marketing message. It is a promise made by a company to its customers and supported by that company. I whitethorn attain innate(predicate) agents that can go out and assemble pages of reports on e real camcorder on the market, but I dont stick out age to read them. Ill acquire Sony (Sterne, 1999 cited in Rowley, J. 2004). Due to the different characteristics of product, brand enables to distinguish one brand from another ( Riezebos, R. 2003). One of the main concerning atomic number 18as in the field of marketing is branding. As brands have grown beyond the national boundaries, it has become vital to get it on and operate them with a strategic vie w. This will enable companies to focus on the specific brand, rather than company as a brand. As the level of competition has risen, companies tend to focus on their branding strategies. A finalely derived strategy will lead a brand to attain high aw atomic number 18ness and success in the market niche. As defined by Pickton and Broderick (2001), branding is a strategy that helps the company and their products to leverage in to the market and it also build brand value for the owners of the brand and also the consumers. Whereas, Randall G (2000) has a presented a different approach Branding comprises of all cardinal strategic process going deep down the company it is a component part of marketing, but not restricted only to marketing department. Based on the benefits offered by a brand, the consumers form a purchasing decision, and evaluate it depending on their needs and wants. According to Temporal (2001), as the importance of branding is increasing, extravagant moving consu mer goods persistence is highly benefited by these strategies. Companies have more than one product in the marketplace, and by viewing the soaring profits in this sector. Companies have tried to differentiate it from their rivals, so that consumers find it easy to purchase. Henceforth, brands append guarantee package to the consumers in terms of value, quality and reliability. Consumers will commit loyalty toward a brand, if the promised quality, value and reliability are bounteous field. As identified by Murphy (1991), Branding adds value to the boilersuit product, and from consumer perspective it provides a self confidence. However, Rowley (2004) has argued by stating that brands not only consist of value, and it also acts an randomness hub. This enables consumers to eradicate the time spent on se pie-eyeding a specific product offering.2.2 Brand EquityThe goal of the brand leadership paradigm is to create squiffy brands. Brand equity is defined as the set of associations an d behaviour on the part of a brands customers, channel members and heighten corporation that permits the brand to earn great volume or greater margin than it could without the brand (Wood, 2000). Appendix 1 depicts, according to Aaker (1991) major assets of a company can be brought together into quintuple main types Brand Loyalty, Brand name awareness, Perceived quality, Brand association, and other proprietary brand assets such(prenominal) as copyrights, patents, trademarks. Appendix 2 shows the brand equity chain, where the comment provided on the brand leads to the strengthenceing the brand and this results in creation or building of brand value. Keller (2003 cited in Atilgan et al. 2005) defined Brand equity from a customer based point of view as Customer based brand equity occurs when the consumer has a high level of awareness and familiarity with the brand and features some strong, favourable, and unique brand associations in memory. One of the main reasons for a company to brand their product is to attain organisational goals of attracting and creating amongst their consumers by provision of bell efficient products, as it will aid company to acquire higher(prenominal) margin of profit (De Chernatony McDonald, 1998). Strong brands are the core products of the company and in order to gain a recognition and financial reward, it is important to build a successful brand.Appendix I Aakers theory on Brand EquityAppendix 2 Brand Equity chain generator Wood (2000)2.3 Brand LeadershipLeading brands are perceived to be relevant, unique and compelling. They inspire customer loyalty and enable organizations to charge impairment premiums. They increase negociate power with business partners, make it easier to hire and defend talented employees and provide organizations with understand strategic directions and platforms for future growth. Together, these lead to easily(p) above average financial performance and a market valuation that far exceeds book va lue. (Aaker, 2000) Leading brands are organizational assets that moldiness be preserved, enhanced and leveraged for the benefit of their organizations. Aaker Joachimsthaler (2000) developed a Brand Leadership stumper which will enable companies to build strong brands for the future. It comprises of four challenges which an organisation should consider.2.3.1 Organisational repugnEvery organisation should structure and process their functions that will lead them to be a strong brand in the market place. A clear organisational hierarchy should be made so that brands are not at the mercy of ad hoc decisions made by those with no long term interest. When a company increases its portfolio, and extends the production line, every manager from a different production line should provide a common set of inputs, outputs and experience that will benefit the organisation. The inter-communication will enable the sharing of insight, experience and brand building initiatives. As companies are go ing external, there lies a dash which companies struggle to confront with, and organisational challenges are raised. With the increasing competition for talent increment amongst business networks, current economic activities rationalise the challenges which are created within the plastered. In order to gain war-ridden advantage, change in organisational strategy is important as response to market need is important.220.127.116.11 Brand StrategyStrategies are always used to gain sustainable competitive advantage, which could reflect from any part of the organizations operation. The marketplace is the evaluator of this advantage. Brand strategy is the process whereby the offer is placed to lecture the perception of advantage (Arnold, 1992). Almost all the features of Brand Management are driven by the overall brand strategy otherwise a company exponent be leading with a confused perception and image of the brand. Strategy gives focus and direction to brand management and provides the pl atform that enables brand managers to gain consistency in all their brand related activities (Temporal, 2002). According to Reizebos (2003), a brand strategy is based on two parameters differentiation and added value. Differentiating refers to the practice of trying to establish the difference between a companys own product and that of the competitor. This signifies that the intention of the brand strategy has a competitive character. By targeting the differentiation strategy, the firm tends to deliver a brand competitive advantage. The other fundamental trait of a brand strategy is added value, which refers to the fact that a brand has more value for consumers than the redundant product. In order to create such an added value, the brand must be meaningful for the consumers (Reizebos, 2003). Appendix 3 shows different branding strategy approaches alter by brands, and their advantages and disadvantages (Drummond Ensor, 2001).2.3.2 Brand ArchitecturePertomilli et al. (2002) defines brand architecture from a company perspective as a combination of strategies which include managing, organising and run in to the market with their brands.18.104.22.168 Branding in FMCG sectorBranding plays a evidential role in FMCG sector, as there are myriad of products in the market. Due to presence of high number of products, it acts a powerful instrumental role in creation of differentiation and higher store presence. Since the competition is strong in this sector, it is highly important for firms to make their brand identifiable from others. Packaging, art and promotional activities such as advertisement is used to attract consumers (Ellwood, 2002). Brands operating in this sector are highly cost efficient and production is carried out in masses. A high not bad(p) is required to establish production of FMCG brand, as production cost is high such firms bonk the benefits of economies of photographic plate. As identified by Moffett et al. (2002), products are not confined with in a region or country. With increase in globalisation, brands can be found in any part of the world. Companies need to consider the global implications of marketing and try to gain brand leadership in the marketplace. For the FMCG sector, denote plays a pivotal role and is the best channel to communicate with the targeted audience. Moreover, with the advancement of internet and information provided on it, consumers tend to opt to canvass product information online before purchasing it. With high competition and many brands offering same product quality, it is very difficult to generate brand loyalty in FMCG sector.22.214.171.124 Benefits of Branding in FMCG sectorA successful brand is one which evokes the consumers by creating and sustaining a strong, positive and lasting impression. ( consider, 1999). For a FMCG company, it is important to create trust towards its brand in minds of consumers. This trust is being construct by providing better quality and satisfaction. Once the trust i s created, it subjects to the top most choice of the consumers mind set and leads to re-purchasing actions. The approval of customers signifies that branding, from consumer perspective, is a method which reduces the time taken for decision-making and related perceived risk of the product. This shows that the brand name provides information about the quality, price, and attributes of the product without requiring the consumer to undergo the time consuming process (Fill, 1999).126.96.36.199 Branding in the soft drink sectorWith the fierce competition in the soft drink industry, firms are fighting for market share. Companies should reflect upon their branding strategies, as they are of paramount importance. Companies should extend their brands to various market niches in order to meet the needs of the consumers. The scope and opportunity in this market is high, as products can be differentiated by infusing different flavours. It would be appropriate to emphasize that the value which the bran d adds to the product is intangible, however, its presence is required and with immense significance. Considering the characteristics of soft drinks, branding is an ideal marketing tool which allows companies to position and differentiate between the offered product and its incremental value.International product portfolio analysisThe Boston Consulting Group (BCG) originated an early version of product portfolio analysis. The BCG version classifies a companys products into four categories stars, cash cows, problem children, and dogs. The classification is based on market share and market growth rate. The optimum product portfolio for one market is different from that of another. Product A, for example, may be a star in country X, and a dog in country Z. Individualizing the use of portfolio techniques for apiece country will help define different product portfolios for for each one foreign market. Although portfolio analysis of products for international sale is relatively naked , it can look the company in determining how to allocate resources among different markets.Positioning a saucily product/brand depends upon the firms ability to describe product attributes that will generate a flow of benefits to buyers and users. The international marketer planner must put these attributes into bundles so that the benefits created match the special needs of each targeted market segment or subculture. Product positioning then is viewed in a multidimensional put, commonly referred to as theperceptual s stride or product space (Johanson, 1985). In terms of perceptual space, a particular version of a product is graphically represented as a point stipulate by its attributes. Competitors (local and international) and other products are similarly located. If points representing other products are close to the point representing the new product, then these are products similar to the new image. If the prototype is positioned away from its closest competitors in the wor ld markets and its positioning implies positive features, then it is likely to have a significant competitive advantage. This mapping process is appropriate for each foreign country/market segment contemplated.2.3.3 Brand identity188.8.131.52 Competitive AnalysisAccording to Cohen (1988), competitive analysis permits the misgiving of differential competitive advantage, as well as the comparative advantages in relation to competitors. Intense competition requires operations to be carried out with maximal efficiency. The key to this is large-scale production to reduce the value of fixed be per bottle. With increasingly sophisticated vehicles and rising investment cost, the optimum economic scale increases (Rees, 1999).Industry Analysis Using Porters fin ForcesAccording to Besanko (2007), in order to devise and execute successful strategies, a firm must understand the nature of the markets in which they operate and compete. In 1980, Micheal Porter developed pentad dollar bill rams to analyse the extent of competition. Understanding the nature and strength of each of the five forces within an industry assists managers in developing the competitive strategy of their organization. (Campbell D., 2002, p.134)The Five Competitive Forces for Irn BruA structural analysis of the UK carbonated soft drinks industry examines the impact the various forces have on this industry. Firms operating in the carbonated soft drink market in the UK, face tough competition from the rivals. Every soft drink organization should review its rivals products, analyse any potential new entrants in the market, understand the demand of substitute products, review the consumption pattern and demand amongst the buyers, and identify appropriate suppliers. Porters five force model is used to analyse the magnitude of competition. The intensity of competition within the industry is quite high, with regular advertising wars taking place on the other get hold of, sales are increasing and the products are differentiated. There are high barriers to limit entry such as the high capital required for production and distribution, increasingly advanced and specialised technology, lack of door to distribution, and strong consumer loyalty to recognised brands.A final, but very critical, point to bear in mind is that the forces themselves change over time. Sometimes in a predictable way, other times not. However, it is usually possible for the firms to have some influence over these changes. If no action is taken to homecoming the forces, it is extremely likely that the forces will grow stronger over time. Each firm needs to consider the actions that it could take to counter the forces, or position itself in such a way as not to face their full impact. For example, merging with a rival not only eliminates a competitor but also reduces the number of competitors in the market as a whole, something that can benefit all rivals by reducing competitive intensity. menace of RivalryIn the UKs soft drink industry, Irn Bru faces the greatest competition from its arch rival Coca-Cola and Britvic soft drinks (Appendix, X). Their presence all round the globe shows their potential strength, and demand in the consumer market. As can be seen from the table, Irn Bru has made constant strides in an upward direction by gaining market share.Manufacturers retail value brand shares in carbonates, 2006-08200620072008 (est.)% changem%m%m%2006-08Coca-Cola GB, of which1,296651,302651,334662.9 Coca-Cola934479424796848+3.6 Fanta127612461156-9.4 Schweppes96510251116+15.6 Dr pepper613613653+6.6 pouf573563603+5.3 jive211171151-28.6Britvic subdued Drinks, of which277142801430515+10.1 Pepsi215112241125212+17.2 7-Up241281301+25.0 Tango382281231-39.5AG Barr Irn-Bru824864915+11.0Other965945884-8.3Own-label239122351220010-16.3Total1,9901001,9971002,018100+1.4 etymon Mintel, 2009Loyalty towards brand names is another factor to measure brands performance. Brand loyalty in the soft drink market is another component which Irn Bru has to deal with from its rivals. Coca Cola and Pepsi are well established brand names all most the globe. Due to high brand awareness and product availability, they attain high market share. The presence of Irn Bru in the international market is very limited. Perhaps, due to its authenticity, it is famous in Scotland, and has struggled in other international markets (e.g. Russia, South Africa, Australia, America and Canada). The soft drink industry is mature, with nominal current growth and limited ability of firms to increase revenues at the pace they may have become accustomed to in the past. Of course, new markets, such as in Middle East or Southern Asia, may result in major new growth opportunities. The current paper of the industry line-up leads to higher levels of competition. On one hand, key rivals offer different products, but similar in size, which increases competition. Differences in companies philosophies, cultures, and histories resu lt in alter strengths and weaknesses, and lead to different strategies in pursuit of competitive advantage the overall predictability of the industry development decreases and industry volatility increases. Irn Bru has a strong presence in the Scotland, due to the fact that it is the country of origin and a strong culture is associated with it.Threat of new entrantEntry to the market, on a large scale, is difficult. The risk of new entrant in the soft drink industry is low. The presence of renowned brands like Coca-Cola and Pepsi, and their strong distribution take in major grocers, public houses, and fast food outlets dominate the industry. Moreover, as the market is saturated, growth tends to be minimised. Such situations prevent new entrants from entree the market, and competing against strong brands. With high fixed cost attached i.e. labour, warehouse, logistics and economies of scale, it is difficult for new entrants to compete with established brands. Market saturation an d high fixed costs, the levels of barriers are increased, and henceforth, entering into the UK soft drink market is difficult. Furthermore, because the products are have already acquired the impression of good experience, and reputation matters, very heavy advertising would be a necessity to gain a foothold as a brand producer. Entry as an own label producer might be possible, but it would demand a large scale operation to keep costs down and be as competitive as the existing large own-label producers. Even with the removal of trade barriers and generally greater harmonization within the European Union, major continental firms have appeared to be reluctant to plan a takeover on the UK market. There are at least some(prenominal) strong brands for every consumer segment soon in the carbonated soft drink industry. Consumers do have a choice, and many have developed brand loyalty. It would be difficult for new entrants to sufficiently differentiate their products and to build brand id entity and loyalty.Threat of supercedeThere are number of substitute for carbonated soft drinks e.g. mineral water, fruit juice, energy drinks, tea, coffee etc. Water and sport drinks provide more variety that appeals to the consumers who seek the healthier options. However, carbonated soft drinks have gradually been gaining market share at their expense and this trend does not appear set to reverse. In addition, carbonated soft drinks have a particularly strong appeal to the callowness market (10-25years), which is where most of the sales can be traced to. Overall, the threat appears relatively weak, especially to the core youth market. advocator of suppliersSoft drink industry suppliers do not hold a strong competitive pressure. There are usually several suppliers to choose from for any of the soft drink components therefore, the rivalry between suppliers is high, and companies have many options, including manufacturing components themselves, which some of them still do. Again, relatively weak pressure exists, with the expulsion of sugar producers and plastic suppliers. The work force is not highly organised, nor is it militant.Power of BuyersThe large numbers of consumers willing to purchase a bottle of carbonated soft drink mean that the actions of a single consumer will not have a notable effect on a companys performance. At the same time, however, these consumers face low switching costs and have varied degrees of brand loyalty, which requires companies to spend significant resources on capturing and retaining that individual consumer. Over 65% of sales are sold through multiple grocers. The top five grocery chains account for nearly 70% of all grocery sales and are thus in a strong bargaining position. Some 8% of sales are through fast food restaurants, and 6% sales are through public houses. (Mintel, 2009) The remainder of sales are relatively weak buyers, including off-licences, confectionaries, newsagents and restaurants. Soft drink manufacturing companies distribute the products to these stores so that they can be sold to the consumers. The top grocers buy soft drinks in bulk, as it allows them to purchase goods at a cheaper price.The strongest pressures come from the power of buyers and the fair intense non-price competition within the industry. Nevertheless, overall the industry seems to be in a fairly healthy position the leading firms are very profitable and industry growth is expected to be steady around 8% over the period 2007-9. Cola, as a product, appears to be reaching maturity, but other segments offer prospects of development and growth. This plays to an advantage in the hand of Irn Bru, as the product offered is completely contrary to the Colas. At the same time, the firms are actively competing on quality and bringing new products to market, as well as being innovative in terms of reducing costs by investing in new technology and machinery, developing new forms of packaging and offering better distribution se rvices. The danger is that the firms may not be able to sustain the route to growth and instead may seek growth through techniques such as undercutting rivals prices in a market share game. In this situation, profits are likely to pretermit rapidly if destructive head-to-head price competition becomes the main competitive instrument.184.108.40.206 The Brand Positioning ConceptAccording to Kotler (1997), Positioning is the act of conniving the companys offering and image so that they occupy a meaningful and pellucid competitive position in the target customers minds. The positioning of a brand is not about the quality which products provide, but it is what consumer thinks about the brand. For positioning, it is important how a consumer perceives the product rather than its physical nature. According to King (1991 cited in Fill 1999), advancements in technological fields have allowed products to offer similar practicable and physical appearance, where consumers choices and decision will be based on the brand name. Henceforth, positioning origination as a brand will evoke actual and potential customers. According to McCormack (1984, cited in Olsson 2004), positioning is a factor which determines what consumers are actually purchasing while buying any product or service and subsequently communicating related imitations and inspirations to the buyer. An organization should principally evaluate and identify where they stand in the market spectrum and then position it accordingly.220.127.116.11 Branding from Consumers PerspectiveA brand provides not only a source of information, but also performs certain other functions which justify its attractive force and its monetary return, when they are valued by buyers. According to (Kapferer, 2008), there are eight main functions (Appendix 4), Identification and practicality are mechanical and concern the essence of the brand i.e. to function as a rec
Friday, March 29, 2019
Critical Analysis The sunlight Also Rises side of meat Literature EssayIn the guard The Sun Also Rises, by Ernest Heming focussing, we explore the animationstyles and complications of a group of American emigrants lifespan in genus Paris, France. The grade takes places after beingness warfare I. The fiction concerns a group of psychologically bruised, disillusi 1d expatriates hold in post war Paris, who take psychic hangout in much(prenominal) immediate physical make forivities as eating, drinking, traveling, brawling, and lovemaking. Hemingway presents a laborious accurate prickleground to the setting and clock time period primarily because the story is based around his personal experiences as an American emigrant living in Paris. The purposes are egotismish in a sense that they act without thinking of the possible consequences for their actions and they feel free of any obligations to loyalty or honor to themselves or others. Though Hemingway was a renowned autho r at the time of the novels conception, he opened the frequents eyes to several taboo topics. At the period of time this book was written, which was in 1926, this book it was considered highly libidinous and offensive.Hemingways knowledge of the feeling you expire in Paris was evident given over the vivid and detailed imagery of the citys streets, mendings of business and buildings, and the entire panorama. The references to certain the cafes, buildings, restaurants, and historic locations defiantly provided that Euro-Parisian feeling. The genuine descriptions of Paris, include in the accurate naming of specific restaurants, streets, and neighborhoods gives a odd pull to the reader and somehow draws you inwardThe number adept wood started up the street. I settled back. Brett moved closing to me. We sat close against each other. I put my arm around her and she rested against me comfortably. It was historical hot and bright, and the houses looked sharply white. We turned o ut onto the Gran Via.Oh, Jake, Brett said, we could throw off had such a damned good time together. Ahead was a attach policeman in khaki directing traffic. He raised his baton. The auto slowed suddenly pressing Brett against me.Yes, I said. Isnt it pretty to think so?The astonishingly colorful dialogue throughout the story makes you feel as though you are truly there eating at the caf and watching the fun unravel.Another significant location in this novel is Spain. In Spain, the characters move to Burguete to fish and Pamplona to witness the Spanish bullfights, which is where Jake is introduced to Pedro Romero (Bloom 113). Romero is a nineteen year 1time(a) newfangled man, an authentic matador. Jake describes him as the exceed-looking boy he has ever seen, this is withal where we get to see a little bit of lav transintimate(prenominal) tendencies. In this book sexuality is flaunted and brought up often. madam Brett Ashley is probably the sizablegest denotation of p romiscuity in the novel. She is separated from her husband awaiting a divorce because of her nettle with promiscuity. In addition, several of Bretts lovers are mention throughout the novel. Her lovers, to name a few, are Pedro Romero, Count Mippipopolous, and Mike Campbell.Hemingway was first made aware of bullfights in Spain by a fellow emigrant and was immediately captivated. He soon developed a passion for bullfights which certainly influenced his invention of Pedro Romeo as a character. Hemingways individual experiences are riddled throughout the story and play an distinguished role in the invention and growth of specific characters. Jake Barnes is the narrator and constitute character in the novel. Jake is a grief stricken, American journalist living in Paris in the 1920s. While Jake does have homosexual tendencies he is in love with Lady Brett Ashley but the relationship is never move receivable to Jakes impotency. By description Jakes appearance is strikingly close to H emingways actual looks, as well as his personality resembles Hemingway in several ways. After World War I, Hemingway felt strongly ungainly and detached from society he often referred to himself as lyrically sterile and physically diminished (Bloom 95-100). Both Hemingway and Barnes were war wounded, journalists working in Paris emigrant society. Hemingway was not rendered sexually impotent however he truly suffered wounds to his legs when a mortar exploded in the trench that he was occupying to promote in the health related evacuation of another(prenominal) soldier. Encyclopedia texts course credit Hemingways wounds to be awful, he had twenty-eight pieces of shrapnel withdraw from his legs, leaving behind over two hundred other pieces that were too deep to be removed (Bloom 80-89). Jakes war injury was an unfathomable wound to his genital playing field that left him impotent and in turn pr purgeted him from having sexual relations with Lady Ashley or any other woman for that matter. Hemingway does not describe Jakes wound, the novel exclusively statesUndressing, I looked at myself in the mirror of the big armoire beside the bed. That was a typically French way to furnish a room. applicatory too, I suppose. Of all the ways to be wounded. I suppose it was funny. I put on my pajamas and got into bed (Hemingway 38).After that infusion there was no more mention of Jakes wound to the reader, it is left to the individuals imagination.Jakes best friend from the U.S. is airman Gorton. Bill shares Jakes love of fishing and out-of-door activities. Their relationship is one of respect and deep companionship. Bill is the animated, funny character in the novel. He brings humor to a very sad event for Jake. His witty cynicism and comical perception bring light to the novel. In an excerpt from the book Hemingway tells us of situation in which Bill and Jake are venturing to Spain on the train and due to the large amount of Catholic Americans migrating to Spain th e two were futile to get tickets for a lunch they had planned to attend. After much time had passed Bill became annoyedFinally at a quarter bypast four we had lunch. Bill had been rather difficult to the last. He buttonholed a non-Christian priest who was coming back with one of the returning streams of pilgrims.When do us Protestants get a chance to eat, father?I dont know anything intimately it. Havent you got tickets?Its adequate to make a man join the Klan, Bill said. The priest looked back at him (Hemingway 93).Michael Campbell, another character in the novel, is a Scottish veterinary who is independently wealthy and jobless. Campbell is Lady Ashleys pronounced fianc and is horribly jealous of her sexual promiscuity. He does consider himself lucky, however, to be her fianc and is willing to overlook her affairs no matter how much they hurt him internally. Robert Cohn, another emigrant character, gives rise to a difference of opinion with his love affliction with Lady Ashl ey. Robert is also a source in the click of friends in this novel Hemingway furthermore establishes a twin of his own personal experiences in this character and the group of friends he pass time with. Hemingways affable circle at this time was his wife, Hadley, his friend Bill Smith, Don Stewart, Harold Loeb, Duff Twysden, and Pat Gutherie (Bloom 25). Hemingway was said to have some of lust affliction toward Twysden but it was unknown if they actually had an affair (Bloom 28). This affection he had toward Duff however did create problems for him. Hemingway later admitted to his publisher that the book was about his own personal experiences. It is a great mistake to put real great deal in a book and one Ill never make, I hope, again (Baker 215).Lady Brett Ashley, as said before, is a indiscriminate woman with an appetite for drunken folly. Her promiscuity and alcoholism creates a conflict in two separate occasions in the novel, of course one between herself and Michael Campbe ll regarding her liaison with Robert Cohn. The other conflict arises because of Bretts aversion to having an affair with Jake Barnes due to his impotency. The novel is highly centered on drunken follies and Bretts weakness for alcohol and socialization. In each scene of the novel the group is drinking, either social or heavily, or trying to recover from a hangover by drinking more alcohol. The group lives without commitments or boundaries and do whatever comes to take care with no remorse or thought of obligations of loyalty to one another or anyone else.During the 1920s Paris was a focal point for young authors and artists of all sorts, among this congregation of emigrant youth was a spirited American woman named Gertrude Stein. Stein established a famous meeting location where painters and writers such as Picasso, Miro, F. Scott Fitzgerald and Ernest Hemingway would gather. Hemingway and Fitzgerald met at Steins caf to exchange ideas and enjoy the company of one another. Gertrude told Hemingway that he was part of a lost generation, a casual remark, save one which became world-famous after Hemingway used it as an epigraph to The Sun Also Rises. This verge was coined to describe Americans who served in World War I and felt anomic and social inept in their own nation. All of you young people who served in the war are a lost generationYou have no respect for anything. You drink yourselves to death (Oliver 25).Needless to say the novels risqu disposition had a propensity of being offensive. After all for the 1920s the haggle bitch and damn were highly unmentioned. When Max Perkins, Hemingways editor, received the manuscript he was hesitant to print the offensive material but Scribner, Hemingways publisher, insisted it was to remain the way Ernest had intended it. The unbridled rendering of drunkenness, mention of human and animal gentiles, and the ban alone was enough to have gotten the novel thrown in the apple sauce by any other publisher. Hemingway re sponded to Perkins by saying, I think that wordsand I will cut anything I canthat are used in conference in The Sun etc. are justified by calamity of the story (Baker 211). In a message dated around a month later, Perkins had persuaded Hemingway to refrain from using such atrocious language (Baker 213).When the novel was finally published, the profane nature of the book alone, without the lubricious language, was enough for critics to up heave. Critics labeled it as a profanity and the Watch and Ward society of Boston added the novel to their list of obscene books and requested failers not to sell the book at all (Baker 215). Hemingways mother, decorate, was among the most offended by the book and wrote her son a letter stating so. Ernest wrote his mother a modest and complaisant response stating that he didnt wish any pain upon her for reading it and he was not ashamed that he had written it.This novel is intentionally intentional for the reader to question Hemingways purpo se and intentions. Was the novel truly written to merely express an emigrants perspective in Paris? Or was the novel actually an outright slap in the face toward the American government by depicting drunkenness during the prohibition? At any rate it is a deliberate use of profane language and portrayal of explicit and obscene events for that time period. Hemingway was in no way a conformist even at an early age. In Hemingways new art there was no human experience that was untouchable, no subject matter that was forbidden (Reynolds 210). His mother, Grace Hemingway, stated that Ernest was often times a wayward boy and somewhat of an outcast (Baker 243). Even though the novel received ample minus reviews, The Sun Also Rises went down in history as one of Hemingways best works, a master piece.In 1954, Ernest Hemingway was award the Nobel Prize in Literature. In his acceptance speech he stated a writer should always try for something that has never been done or that others have move a nd failed. Then sometimes, with great luck, he will succeed (Hulse par. 8). This novel was in spades the first of its kind, a ground breaker of epic proportions. Like the Americans who migrated to france, the The Sun Also Rises was a pioneer, a leader into the literary unknown. Hemingway is now and incessantly will be the cherished writer who led the American public into the next wave of unexplored topics. His life was a story in itself that lead to several great novels. In his fiction, the conflicting elements of his personality, the emotional situations which haunt him, are externalized and objectified and the result is an art which is severe, intense, and deeply serious (Bloom 7). Hemingways career included four marriages (and three divorces) service as an ambulance driver for the Italians in World War I (with an honorable wound) activity as a war correspondent in the Greek-Turkish war (1922), the Spanish Civil War (1937-39), the Chinese-Japanese War (1941) and the War against Hitler in Europe (1944-45). Add big-game hunting and fishing, safaris, expatriation in France and Cuba, bullfighting, the Nobel prize, and the ultimate suicide in Idaho, and you have an absurdly implausible life, on the face of it lived in imitation of Hemingways own fiction (Baker 5). He is an elegant poet who mourns the self, who celebrates the self (rather less effectively) and who suffers divisions in the self. In the broadest tradition of American literature, he stems at long last from the Emersonian reliance on the god within, which is the line of Whitman, Thoreau, and Dickenson (Baker 2).In short, Hemingway led a full and beautiful life that will be forever mourned. He is one of the greatest writers in American history acclaimed by many. His life and times will live on forever in his works.
The Essence Of discolor MusicBlues medicinal drug at its inception is the melody of the d inducetrodden and poor. Having its grow in the plantations of the South, megrims melody gave expression to the trials and sufferings of Afri jakes-the Statesns who had suffered bondage, injustice, and poverty. According to Scaruffi (2003), Music rebrinyed the main vehicle to vent the frustration of a people, but the end of slavery introduced the individual instead of beingness defined by a sort out (the faithful or the workers), the colour singer was now free to and unresolved of defining himself as an individual. His words and mood still echoed the narrow of an intact people, but solo singers represented a new take on that condition, the view of a man fin both(prenominal)y enabled to travel, and no longer a prison houseer of his community, although, sometimes, more lonely. The songs of a negro were the diary of his life (road, van, prison, saloon, sex), lots an itinerant life, as opposed to the diary of a community (plantation, church) (1)The blue is a song of lamentation of self pity. The songs often fill in with themes that deal with an individuals pain and ar often told in a tongue-in-cheek manner. It is a highly individualizedized account of what an individual is going through, and is reflective of the unpleasant realities of life of the American blackness faces in the deep South. Oftentimes the lyrics of vapours deal with unhappy situations brought about by being jobless, poor, lonely, hungry, or being betrayed and deserted by an unfaithful lover.The whole essence of megrims melody was pain, but while the songs seems to be a paean to an individuals plight it does non w each(prenominal)ow in tragedy but rather it celebrates it and recognizes the inevitability of the situation. And in the song Folsom Prison Blues Johnny Cash has managed to capture all of these elements and succeeds in revealing a story about a prison in-mate who landed in pr ison because he killed a man so that he could see how he would die. (2)There are two natural elements in the song that is consistent to the tradition of blues music. The first is the prison and the other is the train. These two elements can be seen as metaphors for two themes that were substantial to the downtrodden and roofless negro the reality of being a slave, both actual and figurative, and on the other hand the longing for freedom and redemption which delinquent to his dwelling in monastic order he can neer have. For the prison in-mate in the song his prison cell is a reality he cant escape from. It is a reality brought about by his own actions and to some extent it is a reality that he accepts and concedes to. While the train that he sees from his prison cell represents all the things in life that he would want to have but can never have receivable to his companionable status in life. In fact the train with all its rich folks is actually taunting him make him feel irate about his situation.Scaruffi makes mention of this stating that, Theoretically, the civil war that ended in 1863 freed the African slaves (slavery was officially abolished in 1865), and, in fact, the first collection of negro songs was published shortly afterwards, Slave Songs of the United States (1867). In practice, it did little to improve the condition of the black man same job, same inconsistency. Even for the blacks who left the southerly states, the cities of the North promised freedom, but mostly delivered a different kind of slavery(1)This discrimination and the inability of blacks to escape the imposed state of things can be intelligibly reflected on Johnny Cashs song albeit with a prisoner taking the place of the black man with the train representing egg white hostel. The social condition that has spawned blues music is still in existence straight off in the black ghettoes of America and is seen in the implied racism that most of the poor running(a) progr am African-Americans are still suffering from. It is for this reason that blues music and the themes that it deals with are still relevant today as it was then. But like every defecate of popular culture that gets assimilated in the mainstream blues music today has lost its socio-political power and is now viewed more of a musical writing style and is celebrated more for its contributions to the world of music. Today most people with pair blues music with such bands as the Rolling Stones and other white musicians who were influenced by such blues legends such as Muddy amnionic fluid and BB King.But if you define blues broadly as the music of the downtrodden and the dispossessed then one can say that the blues music has influenced every form of music that has embraced the themes and issues that blues musicians sang about. During the 1950s blues music gave birth to rock and roll a musical style that took blues guitar chords and riffs and brought about a whole new form of expression that went against button-down values. Blues themes also found expression in the late 80s in the musical rebellion called punk music. alike the blues punk music was born out of the suffering and despair of a marginalized social course of study this time instead of black plantation workers you have the disillusioned working class youthfulness singing about their plight.Rap music can also be seen as the direct descendant of blues music. Like the blues, rap music is a vocal expression of the African-American youth of today to illustrate the problems that he is facing in a society that has constantly denied him redemption and has marginalized him. According to Parker (1999), For todays Black youth, rap music is this medium. It is a musical voice and expression of the unjust and violent society in which they live. Is rap music a trend that has never been witnessed in America before? No, rap music is a continuing line of Negro expressions including Spirituals, Blues, and Soul, all of which were inspired in trying times in our society, regular(a) more so than that of today(3).While blues music can never be separated from and will always be integral to African-American history and struggles, the themes the blues sang about has a universal apostrophize which speaks directly to all of those who has had to endure a life of struggle against social inequality, personal trials, and injustices. The challenge of an individual to rise above his social conditions and the limitations that society has imposed upon him is a situation that anyone can understand, empathize and relate to.psychologically the blues is an outlet for the frustrations that a Black man has to face in American society. A blues musician Tampa Red sang a song called Depression Blues. The song lyrics tell of how if only he could tell all his troubles then his heart would be at ease. This shows that for blues musicians the blues is a cathartic activity which helps them deal with the troubles they are fac ing. Singing and music has been shown to influence the mood of people. An organization called the American Music Therapy Association so far claims music helps individuals with mental health conditions to address depression by making them conscious about their feelings and be more in touch with their emotions and moods (4.). It is thusly clear that singing the blues does help us deal with personal issues by bringing out this issues out in the open in the form of song and music. It gives find us a safe form of expression wherein we could channel emotions and emotional release.
Thursday, March 28, 2019
The Internet is a revolutionary new medium that has provided hatful the world round a new medium of communication. In earnings as the Internet has been nicknamed, every unrivalled can puzzle a voice and it is comparatively easy for one person to reach a very banging audience. In addition to revolutionizing the focal catamenia messages are broadcasted, lucre has also revolutionized peer-to-peer communication. e-mail and instant messaging have a bun in the oven become a very pleasant method of communication for many people, oftentimes replacing the use of telephones and established postal mail. However, the new methods of communication emerging on the Internet have also created a new communication medium for criminals. Many criminals have found e-mail to be a safer method of communication as opposed to the telephone as it is impervious to wiretaps. Instances of criminal use of cyberspace include espionage and drug trafficking. Cyberspace has also led to the rise of a new for m of nuisance - cybercrime. Such crimes include child obscenity and online stalking. The Internet is an international medium, therefore, it cannot be regulated by any one government, however, as crimes committed using the Internet have serious ramifications at heart real world borders, it is necessary that governments of affected nations take safeguards to protect its citizens. The way in which governments prevent crime on the Internet, however, has become a point of contention for many people. For example, privacy advocates in the get together States oppose the federal official Bureau of Investigations implementation of Carnivore a program that reads all e-mail flip through mail servers on which it is installed. They argue that while Carnivores purpose is to interfere correspondence between criminals, it invades the privacy of all Internet users as it allows the FBI to monitoring device all e-mail that passes through a system1. However, of all the nations implementing prec autions to prevent cybercrime and crime committed with the aid of the Internet, Australias are perhaps the most draconian. On November 25, 1999, the Australian Parliament passed laws permitting the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation (ASIO) - the counterpart to the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) - to gain access to private ready reckoner systems and alter data for surveillance purposes without the knowledge of the owner of the computer. It is important to differentiation also that the ASIO is not subject to the Privacy Act of 1988. This makes many Australian citizens uneasy that the government may now not unaccompanied to monitor their actions on the Internet but also to compromise their computer systems.
The Role of Decision fashioning in the Pre-Crisis Period of India (15 March, 1959 - 7September, 1962)More than thirty familys amaze passed since the melodramatic cling of arm inthe remote Himalayan realm of the Sino-Indian border. This conviction gap seems to beappropriate for a correct reappraisal of the conflict. The rate of Indiasattempt to find balance with mainland China, ever since the Kongska Pass concomitant in 1959until the attack of 1962, is not merely a fact woodworking plane that we spate brows and tossand toss away. In stead we have to tie severally idea to the event and causes thatmight have played a habit in the conflict.     Ever since 1959 the border problem between Asias biggest dickens nation-states has been option up speed at a threatening speed. The year 1962 was the ill-starred year for India which knocked out any possibility of run acrossingbetween China and India. Of course, such an act of terror could have not startedwit hout close to mannequin of the reason, whatever it may be. The chronological order ofpre-crisis determinations communicaten Indias administration activity argon of nifty splendor.     The role of the decision-makers before the time of the armed conflicthad a big significance for Indias position on political and scotch matters inthe continent of Asia. A study descriptor in Indias decision making was JawaharlalNehru, leader of the Congress Party, head of the Planning Commission and antiquespokesman of the government in Parliament. These titles not only made him animportant nationalistic soma but also Gandhis appointed heir and a "major decorator of Indias political institutions" (Brecher, 1959). Krishna Menon,"the controversial defense minister consulted in about all issue" along withPandit Govind Ballabh Pant was also a figure of great importance (Langyel, 1962).This importance was mainly derived from the fact that both shared the similaroverall universe view of Nehru. However, in order to understand the cruicialimportance of decision-makers, we shall looked seperately at each of Indias topmen.     Menon was highly important and effectual to Nehru in the essence that thelatter helped Nehru convey his thought and policies to the outside world in aforceful and organized manner (Brecher, 1959). But as Rajani Palme Dutt tell inhis book "The problem of India," foreign policy was exercised " more(prenominal) hind end thescenes than in meetings of the committee." Both Menon and Nehru acted to thedesire of Nehru. It was often when the Foreign secretary would take to Pantdrafts of diplomatic correspondence and get the reaction which was usually atNehrus request (Hoffmann,1990).     Foreign policy makers Nehru, Menon and Pant shared a customary world viewThe Role Of Decision Making In The Pre-crisis Period Of India (15 Marc essays research papers fc Th e Role of Decision Making in the Pre-Crisis Period of India (15 March, 1959 - 7September, 1962)More than thirty years have passed since the dramatic cling of arm inthe remote Himalayan region of the Sino-Indian border. This Time gap seems to beappropriate for a correct reexamination of the conflict. The account of Indiasattempt to find balance with China, ever since the Kongska Pass incident in 1959until the attack of 1962, is not merely a fact sheet that we can brows and tossand toss away. In stead we have to link each idea to the event and causes thatmight have played a role in the conflict.     Ever since 1959 the border problem between Asias biggest two nation-states has been picking up speed at a threatening speed. The year 1962 was theunfortunate year for India which knocked out any possibility of understandingbetween China and India. Of course, such an act of terror could have not startedwithout some kind of the reason, whatever it may be. The chronologica l order ofpre-crisis decisions taken Indias authorities are of great importance.     The role of the decision-makers before the time of the armed conflicthad a big significance for Indias position on political and economic matters inthe continent of Asia. A major figure in Indias decision making was JawaharlalNehru, leader of the Congress Party, head of the Planning Commission and chiefspokesman of the government in Parliament. These titles not only made him animportant nationalistic figure but also Gandhis appointed heir and a "majorarchitect of Indias political institutions" (Brecher, 1959). Krishna Menon,"the controversial defense minister consulted in almost every issue" along withPandit Govind Ballabh Pant was also a figure of great importance (Langyel, 1962).This importance was mainly derived from the fact that both shared the sameoverall world view of Nehru. However, in order to understand the cruicialimportance of decision-makers, we shall looked seperately at each of Indias topmen.     Menon was highly important and useful to Nehru in the essence that thelatter helped Nehru convey his thought and policies to the outside world in aforceful and organized manner (Brecher, 1959). But as Rajani Palme Dutt said inhis book "The problem of India," foreign policy was exercised "more behind thescenes than in meetings of the committee." Both Menon and Nehru acted to thedesire of Nehru. It was often when the Foreign secretary would take to Pantdrafts of diplomatic correspondence and get the reaction which was usually atNehrus request (Hoffmann,1990).     Foreign policy makers Nehru, Menon and Pant shared a common world view
Wednesday, March 27, 2019
Balance Sheet Analysis Applebees International 2004In analyzing the common-size balance sheet for Applebees, it is noted that the total current assets has jumped from 11% to 14% of the total assets. The total assets for Applebees has jumped 6% from 2000 to 2001 drive by improver in the total current assets of 28%. Of those 28% increase, they consisted of 88% increase in the Cash & Equivalents ( change magnitude of $10.6 millions) caused by the diminish in the Capital express repurchasing in 2001 by Applebees. The repurchase of capital stock has decreased by 31% as noted from the year-to-year percentage changes of the Statement of Cash stop which equivalent to about $11 million dollars. The other current assets increased was from the other Current Assets category there was an increase of 92% from 2000 to 2001. imputable to the higher earnings for Applebees, there was an increase in income tax due. A significant component of the increase of other Current Assets was from increased in prepaid income taxes with net deferred income tax asset of $6.7 millions dollars. The intangibiles has also decreased from 18% to 16% in common-size balance sheet for Applebees from 2000 to 2001. This is equivalent to a decrease of 7% from year to year percentage change. This change was driven by amortization of intangible assets related to previous acquisitions of other franchisee restaurants by Applebees.There was a trend in rise of the net billet & equipment related assets since 2002 to 2004. This boost in net position and equipment assets was related to the acquisition strategy conducted by Applebees. For the $34 millions acquisitions of 21 restaurants in Washington D.C. theater of operations on November 7, 2002 $24 millions has been allocated to the fair value of property and equipment plus $10 millions in goodwill. This has caused a jump in net property & equipment assets for 2002 to jumped 16% and Intangibles assets to jumped 12% when comp atomic number 18d to 2001. Si nce most of the purchased are by cash, this has caused a 31% decreased in the Cash & Equivalents for Applebees balance sheet. For the 11 Applebees restaurants acquisitions in Illinois, Indianan, Kentucky, and Missouri for $21.8 million on March 24, 2003, $7.9 millions were allocated to the fair value of property and equipment, the other $16.6 millions went to goodwill, plus a net liabilities in additions of $1.3... ...ense has decreased 82.8% from 2000 to 2004. all told the above are contributing factors in Applebees achieving higher earnings, a 75% increase in net earnings from 2000 to 2004. Average shares has take due to arranged share repurchasing programs by Applebees. Overall, the common-size analysis of the income statement are relatively consistent over the five years of study. Cost of goods has stayed consistent between 74%-75%, the Depreciation and amortization is between 9%-11%, income from address operations and Net Income are also both between 9%-10% in common-size analysis for income Statement. No unusual flutuations has been discovered. As of December 26, 2004, our crystalline assets totaled $10,924,000. These assets consisted of cash and cash equivalents in the amount of $10,642,000 and short-term investments in the amount of $282,000. The working capital deficit increased slightly from $50,359,000 as of December 28, 2003 to $51,041,000 as of December 26, 2004. This increase was due primarily to increases in the loss reserve and unearned premiums related to the captive insurance subordinate word and accounts payable and was partially offset by increases in inventories and receivables.
Sam Walton a small-town merchant who had operated a variety of stores in Arkansas and Missouri, Walton was convinced that consumers would flock to a discount store with a wide array of merchandise and friendly service. When Sam Walton opened his graduation Wal-Mart Store in 1962, it marked the beginning of an American success bilgewater that no one could have predicted. Wal-Mart is a place where prices are starting time and value and customer service are high every day. Because Wal-Mart carefully controls expenses to maintain its low price structure, customers do not have to calculate for a sale to realize savings.Sam Walton had no idea his line would take off like it has. Today, years after his death, the company is unflustered growing steadily. He never concept that his little $25,000 investment in a retail store would be a huge success, alone Walton had an idea that no one had ever thought of. This would be the thought that would not only change his life, but the lives o f millions of customers as well. The creator of K-mart verbalise he fabricated up the idea that if he offered well-know brands and sold them or so 15% cheaper than other retailers, then this would make them a powerful computer address in the retail business, and little did the creator of K-mart knew Walton was right. Regarded by many as the entrepreneur of the century, Walton had a reputation for caring about his customers, his employees and the community.Walton proved to be a visionary leader and was known for his ability to quickly suss out from his competitors successes and failures. In fact, the creator of Kmart once claimed that Walton "not only copied our concepts, he change them. Sam just took the ball and ran with it". In the 70s and 80s K-mart wasnt going into towns that had a population lower than 50,000 people, so Walton decided that he would put his stores in small towns that all the major(ip) retailers were ignoring. As Walton stated, When people want to si mplify the Wal-Mart story thats usually how they sum up the secret of our success, Oh, they went into small towns when nobody else would. Walton realized earlyish on that he couldnt build stores in just great cities like his competitors. So realizing this, he built his stores around his distribution centers and warehouses, in which each store was no more than a days fill away.
Tuesday, March 26, 2019
Julius Caesar play down Knowledge Is Needed To Understand PlayHaving a good mise en scene and knowledge of the history of capital of Italy is veryhelpful to empathize Shakespeares play, Julius Caesar. The cathode-ray oscilloscope of thisplay took place hundreds of years ago, so if one knows a myopic bit of Ro patchhistory, it would help very much in apprehensiveness what is going on in the play.It is important to know about the connection, or relationship that thereonce was between Caesar and Pompey. When Crassus died, Pompey and Caesar wereleft as couple up rulers of Rome. As one could imagine, each wanted to be the onlyruler, so a struggle broke out between them. Caesar defeated Pompey and his regular armyin an important battle, and went on later to defeat Pompeys two sons. It is later on that fifth and last triumph, at the time they are celebrating, when theplay opens. To understand the play even better, one should be aware of Brutus(one of the conspirators against Caesar) ancestors, the Tarquins. Nearly cardinalhundred years before Caesar was even born, a cruel, unscrupulous booster cable familyhad seized the riens of power and had set themselves up as kings. From thatpoint on, the people of Rome hated kings, and they bounded themselves togetherby a solemn adjuration never to tolerate a monarch, and it was formally enacted intolaw that if any man wish that the monarchy should be restored, he was to bedeclared a universal enemy and be put to death.Brutus and the rest of the conspirators had killed Caesar, but they madean error, which was permit Mark Antony, one of Caesars friends live. Antonylater united with Bepidus and Octavius, to go against Brutus, Cassius, and theother conspirators. At the battle of Philippi, in Thrace, Brutus and Cassiustook their own lives when their army was destroyed. Just as Caesar and Pompeyhad struggled for the universe of discourse when Cassus died, so now when Bepidus died, Antonyand Octavius were left confronting each other. Octavius held Rome and EuropeAntony held the East. Antony affiliate with Cleopatra and were planning to rule theworld from Alexandria, Cleopatras capital. Their navies met Octavius off theshore of Actium, in Greece. Octavius conquered decisively, and two Antony and
Lincolns LegacyA bequest is something that is passed down from a predecessor. Lincolnslegacy is the teachings that he had wanted all told of us, as Ameri provoke citizens, tolive by. In the Gettysburg Address, Lincoln explained what ourresponsibilities as American citizens atomic number 18. His concepts tie all off U.S. taradiddle together and aid the prosperity of our country.     In the Gettysburg Address, Lincoln stated that all men are created equal.He was restating the beliefs of Thomas Jefferson when Jefferson wrote theDeclaration of Independence. Lincoln was stressful to explain to us that unityplays a major role in our lives. Just as Jefferson stated many yearspreviously, we moldiness incubate all men as our brothers in order to keep theAmerican society united.     Lincoln also stated that a great civil war is something that is verydifficult for a nation to endure. The Constitution states that we must createand maintain a more perf ect union. That is impossible when we are fightingagainst ourselves. Lincoln said that "A house divided against itself can nonstand." This is what James Madison, "the father of the constitution," meant inthe constitution. We must compromise to acquit our disagreements and keep ourcountry together.     The idea that many men had died for our country and that we should notforget them was strongly emphasized in he Gettysburg Address. In the send ofRights it is conveyed that no person should be deprived of their basic rights.These men that died in order that we could all be sovereign, and that nobodycould own anyone else, were deprived of everything when their lives were taken.It is our debt instrument to never forget what they have so bravely done for us.
Monday, March 25, 2019
Is Social Science scientific?Sociology is undoubtedly a logical science it has the characteristics that other sciences have, its own theories that dope be proved, as well as having systematic theories and laws. John Maynard Keynes refuted the many statements made by Auguste Comte and Friedrich Engels, simply he described social sciences as illogical and dull. Thus, without providing any sufficient evidence, he had not proven that, in fact, sociology is not scientific. Auguste Comte regularly compared sociology to other familiar forms of science, like biology, physics, and chemistry. In doing so, he made the assumption that others believed sociology to be scientific. Comte, unintention anyy, provided adequate evidence as to wherefore sociology is scientific, while at the same time simply describing sociology as a whole. Much like Comte, Friedrich Engels also found social sciences to be scientific, Engels was equal to(p) to apply Comtes beliefs and the basis of sociology to practic al situations and groups of people. His strong belief in the science of sociology helped him form the basic idea that knowledge is what makes a someone free thus, ignorance is what restricts people. John Maynard Keynes is considered the challenger of Friedrich Engels, because he often disputed Engels work, particularly his work on social sciences. Keynes found socialism to be a utopianism ideal, which caused people to be easily influenced without really being aware of all the facts. He didnt believe that the...
intromissionCloud computing has boost a large-scale amount of invade in the IT industry. The market research and analysis firm IDC suggests that the market for pervert computing services was $16bn in 2008 and will rise to $42bn/year by 2012 (Chhabra, Verma & Taneja, 2010) .The era of cloud computing introduces a refreshed dimension for Enterprises. The academe and research worlds have developed a keen interest into challenges and issues introduced by this relatively new concept (Sriram & Khajeh-Hosseini, 2009). As experienced by large or small companies while adopting cloud computing engineering, the issues can be outlined as security, privacy, selective information migration as (Hosseini, et al., 2010 ). Adoption of cloud technology by enterprises especially those be using KBE (knowledge based engineering) systems are in risk in terms of migration their data over the cloud. Most enterprises are in a midst of creating, sharing, streaming and storing data in digital formats to allow collaboration , hence there is a involve to endlessly managed and protect the data to ensure its value and authenticity (Yale & Chow, 2011). Enterprises now claim increasingly more information about their products, customers and partners- whether its stored in a cloud environment or not and failure to protect this data can be damaging. Partners and clients anticipate their information will be forever and a day protected before conducting business with a company. Within lay the need for complete data governance to manage and protect crucial data, which has expire a key issue for the cloud (Yale, 2011).The literature review aims to contend the borrowing of cloud computing within enterprises those are using KBE systems and how this adoption of cloud will affect their data governan... ... this process, and it can take some(prenominal) months between the decision to procure hardware and the hardware being delivered, frame-up and ready to use. The use of cloud computing ca n greatly abase this time period, but the more significant change relates to the empowerment of users and the scattering of the IT departments authority as pointed out by Yanosky 20. For example, a companys cultivation coordinator who requires a few servers to run a week-long web-based training course can bypass their IT department and run the training course in the cloud. They could pay their cloud usage-bill using their personal reference work card and charge back the amount as expenses to their employee. A like scenario was recently reported by BP, where a group bypassed the companys procurement, IT department and security processes by using AWS to host a new customer facing website 10.
Sunday, March 24, 2019
Before sensation woman refused to head to the back of the bus, before there was a vocalize to peacefully express the dream, before Jim Crow was scared away, there were organizations, fighters and events that contri howevered to the improvement of African Americans. As W.E.B. Du Bois provided the diving board that would allow blacks to dive into the pussycat of equality, he is found at the origin of the Civil Rights Movement. The Pan-Africanism movement, the rage adjacent the Red Summer, and the Great Migration continued the efforts of W.E.B. Du Bois. The bold and striking words and actions of Marcus Garvey showed whites that blacks would non be called an inferior race any longer. Following World struggle II, many bounds toward racial equality were made and Brown versus the come along of Education poured gasoline onto the civil rights fire. Around 1900, many U.S. historians released theories proclaiming the racial lower status of blacks, and discrimination aga inst southern blacks became even more(prenominal) widespread throughout the primeval 1900s. Every southern state required racial segregation on trains and in churches, shallows, hotels, restaurants, theaters, and other public places. The southern states also adopted an pick practice known as the white primary. This process banned blacks from pick out in the Democratic Partys primary election by calling them private affairs. By 1910, every southern state was, if they had not already, in the process of revoking suffrage from African Americans, and the Ku Klux Klan enforced this (Forces). The Ku Klux Klan attempted to aliment blacks from voting through an increased use of threats, beatings, and killings. More than 3,000 blacks had been lynched during the late 1800s, and hundreds more ... ...rmined to keep and expand these gains. NAACP membership soared from 51,000 in 1940 to 351,000 in 1945 this made it come-at-able for the relentless organization to expand its acti vities. Because of both rising black income and the efforts of the unite Negro College Fund, founded in 1950, giving blacks a much broader base for their afterlife leadership. As the years slowly passed by, black triumphs added up (Levine 171) The most authoritative victory for African American civil rights during the 1950s was the Supreme Courts command in the Brown versus the Board of Education ruling, which declared separate but equal unconstitutional. It was a great victory for the NAACP and for Black America. The victory in the courtroom, however, was not manifested until many years later as the majority of school districts continued their segregationist policies across America.
My Philosophy of Education Education is a study component of our society. Each culture has its own traditions on education, and there argon many an(prenominal) different philosophies on education. There argon so many people that are involved in the educational arrangement, and I note that it is central to express my own philosophy on education. Of course, one design of education is to help to develop children emotionally. In the educational setting students memorise manners, how to respect their peers and their elders. In fact, I feel that this is one of the more of the essence(p) purposes of the schools. Children learn how to interact with other students, and educateers. Especially in the early years, students are taught to be honest, and to share. While these are lessons that might also be taught at home, it is important to reinforce proper behavior at schools. Similarly, the educational system also teaches basic skills that will be necessary in life. These lessons arent always taught in classes or planned in lessons, however, certain things, equivalent time management is taught through school. Students are required to balance their life, with homework, sports practices, clubs, friends and family. This is an important skill that the educational system helps to develop. Clearly another purpose of schools is to teach students different subject areas. The purpose of education is to expand your knowledge, and your world. I guess that the pu...
Saturday, March 23, 2019
In the Oresteia there seems to be a keep cycle of punish. Someone is wrap up and therefore a relative must kill the murderer, therefore bonnie a murderer himself. A new chosen one is then selected to take revenge on that person who killed before him and the cycle goes on and on. The furies also play a part in this cycle of revenge. They stress out those who kill their blood relatives and haunt them and torture them for eternity. So basically they also take revenge for the ones that have been murdered. Revenge is a continuing theme throughout the play until Athena has a hand in making it come to an end.Apollo sends Orestes to visit the goddess Athena for judgment in the eccentric person of him murdering his mother because the furies continue to pursue him even though Apollo has washed his give clean of the murder. He tells Orestes, we will find the means to free you from this churn youve been caught in, once and for all. For I persuaded you to kill your mother (97-9). Apoll o is taking responsibility for this murder that Orestes committed. The furies, however, are not concerned with the fact that Apollo ordered Orestes to take revenge for his father. They only seem to focus in on the fact the he did murder his mother. The furies have no care as to why he did it, so Athena will be the one to listen to their cases and make up ones mind who is in the right or wrong.When finally he reaches Athenas court, he tells her of the previous events. He says, So I returned, after my old age of exile, an...
Islam does non define only the spiritual side of the life, besides also material side.Muslim civilization played a authoritative role in the history of the world and continues to have quiet an figure out on the moderne world . Today, there ar over 1 billion Muslims all over the world more than 40 countries be members of the organization of the Moslem Conference. There are many Muslim diasporas in Europe, around 15 iodine thousand million people , and around 6 million people in the United States. Unlike other modern civilizations, Islam is not directly linked to any region, but covers almost the entire modern world. Where people belong to variant cultures, races, traditions and languages. And despite the fact that it is difficult to tattle of a common historical destiny of the Muslims, Islam still acts as a wholey in diversity.However, this civilization solidarity is not non- betrothal . It does not pull through in a pure form and is more likely to be viewed as a resu lt of cross-cultural interaction between different civilizations , value, political ideas, the way of life, the foundations of which are rooted in Islam . This civilization is one of the most viable world religions , and it dynamically adapts to the traditions of the various peoples. However, the Islam religion is machine-accessible with many serious problems. Since 1967, the media and the research literature has often used the precondition Muslim factor, after the Iranian revolution in 1979 became associated with Islam a threat to world order , and in the 80s with the danger of extremism and terrorism , up to the conclusions that the entire Muslim civilization is a potential source of conflict in the world today.But a closer look at the Islam shows us, that in assessing the role of Islam, the stereot... ...ot achieved , contractors are not allowed to operate freely . And they need that the government will take resources from the rich and give it to the poor. Therefore, the moral aspects are an essential element of the difference between the market economy and Islamic concepts .The Islamic market is universe very profitable, but the effectiveness of the trading operations has been relatively limited due to lack of development of the business unit due to the short existence of the moderm history.As of now, we can say that the carry through of forming the national government identity of Muslim countries is not yet complete. It is being affected by radical religious and social changes, that doesnt allow us to speak about the Muslim world being ready to walk of life side by side with other civilizations. However, we cannot ignore the obvious uncovering of some individual Arab countries.
Friday, March 22, 2019
Materialism in The Dharma Bums and Goodbye, Columbus Several plant life we have read thus far have criticized the prosperity of American suburbia. Jack Kerouacs The Dharma Bums, Philip Roths Goodbye, Columbus, and an excerpt from Lawrence Ferlinghettis poem A Coney Island of the Mind tout ensemble pass judgement on the denizens of the bourgeoisie and the materialism in which they parry themselves. However, each work does not make the same analysis, as the stories be told from different viewpoints. The Dharma Bums and A Coney Island of the Mind are critiques of materialism by people who have rejected the middle-class ideals. In Goodbye, Columbus, however, Roth makes his point via Neil, a dweller of the lower class who wants to join the prosperous rank of the Patimkin family. The loss is that Kerouac and Ferlinghetti mock the suburbanites, yet pay them little anxiety eon several(prenominal) characters in Goodbye, Columbus are disdainful of the materialism exuded by the Patimkins while feeling excluded from their social class. In The Dharma Bums, Kerouac strengthens his argument for the Zen ideal of leanness and freedom by this criticism of the conformity practiced by the middle-class ...youll debate if you take a walk some night on a suburban street and pass business firm after house on both sides of the street each with the lamplight of the living room, shining golden, and inside(a) the little blue square of the television, each living family riveting its attention probably on one show nobody talking allay in the yards dogs barking at you because you pass on human feet instead of wheels. Youll see what I mean, when it begins to appear like everybody in the world is soon divergence to be intellection the same way and the Zen Lunatics have hanker joined dust, laughter on their dust lips. (104) Kerouacs point is that freedom doesnt outlive in a place where everyone is watching the same thing and thinking the same thing at the same time. Kerouac also reflects on the sleeveless trap of materialism. Japhy discusses all that crap they didnt really want anyway such(prenominal) as refrigerators, TV sets, cars, at least fancy new cars, indisputable hair oils and deodorants and general junk you finally always see a week later in the garbage anyway, all of them imprisoned in a system of work, produce, consume, work, produce, consume.